The Journal for Development and Leadership (JDL) is a peer-reviewed journal of the Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences at the Nelson Mandela University in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. This journal is aimed at providing practical guidance and empirical evidence to researchers and practitioners specialising in Business and Economics and related fields.

The journal provides a communication forum to advance entrepreneurship, innovation, small business management and various disciplines in Business and Economics, as well as the application of the disciplines in practice. Its aim is the improvement and further development of these fields and it is designed to appeal to academics, researchers and practitioners.

A double-blind review process is followed, supported by a national and international Editorial Peer Review Board.

Full academic accreditation will be applied for at the DoHE when the set requirements have been met.

The mission of the Journal for Development and Leadership (JDL) is to be a dynamic and internationally-recognised academic journal of excellence that will stimulate sustainable development and leadership by generating and disseminating of cutting-edge knowledge and understanding.

It is envisaged that the JDL will serve as a platform for presenting information central to the concerns of academics, researchers and practitioners. In this manner, research will grow and simultaneously shape theories for future application in the relevant societal contexts.

The Journal is published bi-annually, in June and December by the Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences of the Nelson Mandela University.

The views expressed in the journal are those of the respective authors.

Information for Contributors of Articles

Editorial policy

The editorial policy includes taking cognisance of the journal’s objective to advance all disciplines, fields and sub-fields within the Faculty of Business and Economic Sciences, such as those mentioned above and, in addition, the advancement of entrepreneurship, innovation, small business development, among others, as well as the application of the various, relevant disciplines in practice.

The primary purpose of the journal is to publish research articles in the various fields, to disseminate information and to serve as a publication vehicle for academics, researchers and practitioners. For example, practical papers, empirical papers, new approaches and techniques, case studies, and conceptual papers will be considered for publication, as well as book reviews and, when appropriate, conference papers.

Review process and proofing

The decision of the Editorial Committee to publish a given article is based on the judgement of the reviewers, who are all knowledgeable in their respective fields.

Authors will be informed of the committee’s decision, including any relevant comments, after the article had been reviewed. Neither authors nor reviewers are identified in the review process.

Submission requirements

When submitting articles, authors have to agree that:

  • They have not submitted and will not submit their article to another entity while the article is under review at JDL.
  • They will only submit articles and empirical reports that have not been published previously.
  • Their articles are prepared according to the prescribed style of JDL. 
  • Articles that have not been appropriately prepared according to the set guidelines will be returned to the authors prior to peer-reviewing.


Font and font size should be Arial or Times New Roman in 12 pt font size.


The abstract should consist of approximately 200 words and should be in single spacing.


Authors should identify up to five keywords on the title page that characterise the principal themes covered by the paper.


Papers should be written in English.

Title page

This page should contain the title of the article and the name, affiliation, full address and contact information of every author. If the article is co-authored, then the name of the author to whom correspondence should be sent has to be marked with an asterisk (*).


The article has to be typed on one side of the page only in 1.5 line spacing. Appropriate headings and sub-headings should be used to segment the article to enhance readability. The length of the article should not exceed 10000 words of typed text (approximately 30 typewritten A4 pages).


Headings and sub-headings should not be numbered. All headings have to be formatted in bold upper case, and subheadings in bold lower case (for example, using initial capitals and the rest lower case). Sub-sub headings should be in regular lower case. Articles should include: abstract, introduction, identification of a problem, aims of the study, method and sample, measuring instruments, procedure, followed by interpretation and articulation of the results.

A conclusion has to be provided at the end of the article followed by a bibliography and possible annexures (appendices).


Tables and figures should be applied in the text, as close as possible and relevant to the appropriate explanation. They should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals.


The Harvard Style of reference is used (see below). All publications cited in the text should be listed alphabetically by the surname of the first author in the bibliography at the end of the paper.

A bibliography (alphabetical, by author’s last name, including initials) should be placed at the end of the article. Authors should ensure that there is a complete reference for every citation in the text and that the cited dates and the spelling of authors’ names in the text and the references are consistent.


The most recent publications on the topic should be cited, particularly those of the last 5 years, although the inclusion of older publications is acceptable, if appropriately applicable within the relevant context.

No full stops and no spaces between initials in prelims list, article opener – for example: Professor H Lloyd;

After abbreviations – no full stops after abbreviation that ends in the final letter of the word – for example: ‘Dr’

References in text

More than 4 authors: Use first name followed by ‘et al’.

For 3 authors: use all names at first mention, thereafter use ‘et al’;

Use ampersand (&) between authors’ names;

In the text, no comma after author’s name, space after colon – for example: (Lloyd 2008: 123);

Providing of page numbers is mandatory (see extract) from University of Exeter to the Harvard referring system).

In the reference list, no parentheses around the year except in the case of ‘nd’ for ‘no date supplied’;

Full stops between initials – see above;

Book and Article Titles: use upper case only for the first letter of the title, and not for the first letter of the subtitle after the colon.

Online sources – need to be consistent as follows: ‘Online at:’ followed by the URL; have no punctuation after the URL. Conclude with ‘(accessed 20 July 2008)’ followed by full stop outside the parenthesis.

Style for dates - all dates in UK / SA style, e.g. 24 June 2008. Use this in every instance, in the text and in the references.

Quotations & Quotation Marks


Double quotation marks;

Single quotation marks used within double quotation marks.


For numbers 1 – 10 within the text, words must be used. For numbers 11 onwards use numerals;

Use spaces instead of commas between hundreds, thousands and millions;

Use the decimal point rather than the comma.


Table: table caption above table and insert source below;

Figure: caption below and source below figure.

Permissions & Copyright

When authors are making use of pictures, financial statements or any material from other sources/authors, onus to acquire copyright and source permissions is on the author. The publisher and/or Nelson Mandela University is not responsible for the acquisition thereof. Permission to publish copyrighted material should be acquired prior to submission of an article.

Where and how to submit:

Papers should be submitted in MS Word format via e-mail to, or other electronic means, such as CD or memory stick to:

The Editor: Journal for Development and Leadership

Nelson Mandela University
P O Box 77000
Port Elizabeth
South Africa

Telephone: 27 41 504 4607
Telephone: 27 41 504 2906